Motivation plays a significant role in the growth of an employee. The driving force that leads to a determined behavior is termed as motivation. This helps an employee to work towards the betterment of the company he is employed in.
Motivation comprises of three major components-
- Willingness To Work– It depicts the eagerness of the employee to work in a particular direction. The effort is transparent in the individual’s behavior. The willingness to work helps the individual to achieve desired results.
- Instinct Of The Employee– The next component is the instinct of the employee. The instinct can be defined as the tendency to be inclined towards a particular behavior. It includes emotional factors of the human being like love, hatred, greed, etc. These are the scenarios when humans tend to react instinctively in a definite manner.
- The Driving Theory– The third component that comprises motivation is the drive theory. According to this theory the people are motivated to fulfil their biological requirements of survival. The most common example that explains this theory is hunger and thirst in any human being which motivates the person to fend for himself to basic survival.
Another effective driving force that works towards motivating a person is the arousing force. This force makes human beings react to a certain situation in a positive way that benefits the organization. For example, in times of recessions when people were demotivated and almost lost hope to get jobs anywhere, many administrators motivated employee with speeches which were full of positive energy. This aroused a positive feeling among the people who were going through tremendous amount of mental strain. And, motivated them to focus on getting jobs rather than complaining about the situation.
This process of motivation is commonly called the arousal theory.
Another kind of approach is the cognitive approach which drives the driving theory.
According to the cognitive approach humans are normally motivated with the help of ambition, rewards and self-satisfaction.
Cognitive approach is further segregated into two types-
i. Intrinsic Approach.
ii. Extrinsic Approach.
- Intrinsic Approach– This is an approach where you do things for self- satisfaction. You mainly focus on things that make you happy and satisfied. For example, pursuing a hobby in the leisure time or going out with friends and family.
- Extrinsic Approach– This kind of an approach doing something in order to get something. For example, you are doing a job with full integrity in order to be paid on time.
Motivation can be based on various factors. The common factors are- Promotion, Declaration of Incentives and Recognition.
Incentives is the payment a person receives over and above the salary he or she is entitled to. Yearly bonuses, Food allowance, paid leaves, medical insurance, reimbursements of travel and transportation costs fall under the category of incentives. This motivates people to work hard and achieve their goals.
Promotion also motivates people to put in their best. Because it allows them to get into a better position to work and opens the doors of opportunity for them.
Steps Implemented To Motivate Employees
Different steps are taken by different organizations to motivate their employees to perform better
- Organizations have implemented friendly competitions with in the employees by setting targets for them.
- The HR system have designed different kinds of team building activities some of the activities require splitting the employees into small groups. This activity motivates employees to work on self and it also gives the employee a chance to show his worth. This activity helps to motivate employees on a one on one basis.
Theories That Throw Light On The Needs And Wants Of Individuals
Through years of research various theories have been developed that focuses on the requirements of individuals.
Some of the theories are-
- Fredrick Herzberg’s Theory– This theory states two major factors affect motivation one is job-satisfaction and other is job-dissatisfaction. These two things are inter related but according to the Herzberg theory these are separate. Further in his research he separated motivation into two groups. The motivators and Hygiene factors.
The motivators included factors like, achievement, recognition, advancement and responsibility and the group which was named hygiene factors included company policies, work environment, relationship with peers, work environment, salary, job security and status of the employee in the organization.
The theory suggests that the presence of these motivators led to job- satisfaction but it was found that the absence of it did not lead to dissatisfaction.
Similarly, the absence of the hygiene factors has led to employee dissatisfaction but the presence of them has not satisfied the employees to that extent. Therefore, it is clear that job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not inter connected according to the theory.
Similar to this there is a Theory of Mc Clelland which focus on needs like power, achievement and affiliation. As per this theory the need for power is described as the driving force for motivation in employees.
On the other hand, the equity theory states that employees must be treated equally in order to be motivated. Every employee must be given a fair chance when competing with their co-workers.
There is one more theory that defines motivation it is called the Goal-Setting Theory.
According to this particular theory if an employee is given a target to achieve and directed towards it. The chances of his performing better are more. Because the employee is more focused. In this case the goal is set by both the employee and employer. And they work as team. Regular feedback to the employer motivates the employee to achieve his target.
Thus, we can say that motivation plays a significant role and helps the employee to grow. There are various factors that contribute to motivate an employee and accordingly various initiates have been taken by organizations to motivate their employees to perform better.
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