Extrinsic Vs Intrinsic Motivation: Difference And Examples

Extrinsic Vs Intrinsic Motivation
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Introduction

Motivation is the reason or the force that influences human beings or animals to behave in a particular way in order to achieve some particular goals. Motivation plays an important role in human life for improving the performance of human beings in both their professional life and their personal life. While motivating other people, the motivator usually highlights some unique qualities or abilities within these people and tries to make them understand that they are able to perform various works efficiently and they have the qualities of abilities to achieve success in their life (Quested et al. 2018). The motivator show or tell some reason for performing some specific tasks for achieving their life’s goals. Sometimes, the motivators can also influence the general people to take some specific initiatives for improving their skills and abilities so that they can achieve success in their lives.

For example, it has been revealed in studies that employers often verbally praise the efforts of the employees so that they become happy and confident about their skills and they become more interested to perform their roles and responsibilities effectively. Sometimes, various types of rewards are provided to the employees in order to motivate them for performing their works more efficiently (Scheffer and Heckhausen, 2018). Considering all these facts, it can be said that motivation is very much important in one’s life for achieving success in life. However, there are mainly two types of motivation, namely, extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. There are also significant differences between the concepts of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. The main objective of the study is to analyze the basic differences between extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation and their importance in human life.

Discussions

According to the essay typer extrinsic motivation is a type of motivation that is aimed at influencing human beings for achieving some external goals like achieving performance targets in the workplace, earning rewards or bonus, or some other goals. On the other hand, intrinsic motivation is a type of motivation that is aimed at influencing an individual or individuals to achieve internal satisfaction by doing something good (Fischer et al. 2019). Though extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivations are both types of motivation and both these types of motivation influence individuals to perform specific activities, there are differences in the purposes of both these types of motivation. Extrinsic motivation influences human beings to achieve some particular goals related to professional development or personal development. However, intrinsic motivation influences human beings for achieving internal satisfaction.

Considering these facts, it can be said that extrinsic motivation provides enough importance to professional achievement or success in different spheres of life. However, intrinsic motivation provides enough importance to internal satisfaction and confidence development of human beings. In extrinsic motivation, people are influenced to improve their employability skills and specific abilities so that he or she can achieve success in his or her professional life (Scheffer and Heckhausen, 2018). For example, when an employer verbally praises the employees or provides some bonus or incentives, the employer actually tries to motivate the employees to improve their skills and competencies for achieving their performance targets (Rheinberg, 2020). In such cases, the employees who receive the bonus or incentives are motivated to perform their work more efficiently for earning those incentives or bonus again and again. On the other hand, the employees who do not get the incentives also become motivated to perform their work sincerely so they also become eligible for getting the bonus or incentives. In both these cases, a scenario of competition might be created among the employees as employees might compete with each other for achieving performance targets or for achieving monetary rewards or incentives. To know more students can take help from management assignment help experts.

This type of unhealthy competition often can badly affect the mental health of the employees and they can suffer from anxiety regarding the achievement of performance targets. In some rare cases, when employees fail to achieve performance targets even after motivation, they might suffer from depression also and therefore, it becomes difficult for the person to live a healthy life. However, intrinsic motivation provides enough importance to the internal satisfaction of human beings, and therefore, intrinsic motivation also provides enough importance to the mental health and well-being of individuals (Cherry, 2016). In some cases, intrinsic motivation is also used for helping an individual to recover from depression and anxiety. For example, when a person or a motivator influences another person to read good books or to think positively about resolving her or her inner turmoil, this can be called intrinsic motivation. Similarly, when motivators influence an individual to engage deeply with his or her work for getting recovery from depression, this can also be called an example of intrinsic motivation. Most of the theories of motivation provide enough importance to both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation because the motivation for anything without caring about the mental health and wellbeing or inner satisfaction of the person cannot actually produce good results (Kotera et al. 2021). For this reason, people need to provide enough importance to both external achievements and internal satisfaction while motivating someone.

In this context, we can discuss the benefits and limitations of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. According to many researchers, extrinsic motivation has various positive sides like influencing people to chase after goals and dreams, influencing people for professional development, and so on. It has revealed in studies that employers often use extrinsic motivation in order to influence employees to perform their roles and responsibilities effectively (Putra et al. 2017). For example, various types of tangible rewards, specially, monetary rewards are used by employers for inspiring employees to increase their productivity. When the employees get monetary rewards, they become more interested to perform their allocated tasks efficiently. In this process, it becomes easier for the organization to achieve its business goals. Along with that, extrinsic motivation also helps retain highly skilled employees for long term.  Along with that, extrinsic motivation also influences lethargic and stubborn people to chase after their goals and dreams in order to achieve success in their professional life.

It has been revealed in studies that when the employees of an organization get extrinsic rewards, they become more interested to improve their performance, and even their productivity and creativity increase therefore, it becomes easier for the organization to implement innovations in their products, services, processes, and strategies. On the other hand, it has also been revealed in studies that when the highly skilled employees do not get enough extrinsic motivation, they become less interested to perform their roles and responsibilities and their productivity and creativity decrease gradually or they become reluctant to apply their creativity to their own work and therefore, it becomes difficult for the organization to achieve their operational targets and sometimes the organizations even can face difficulties in retaining the highly skilled employees for long term (Serin, 2018). For this reason, reputed business organizations often prefer to use extrinsic motivation and rewards for motivating the employees of the organization for improving their performance.

For this reason, extrinsic rewards can play an important role for improving the employability skills, productivity, creativity and overall performance of people and extrinsic rewards can facilitate the professional development of people. Besides all these benefits of extrinsic rewards, there are various limitations of extrinsic rewards. The main limitation of extrinsic reward is that it often increases the tendency of competing with other people for achieving some external goals or some monetary benefits and the extrinsic motivation process provides enough importance to professional development and skills development only and the extrinsic motivation process does not provide enough importance to internal satisfaction of people. Now we can discuss the benefits of intrinsic motivation (Derfler-Rozin and Pitesa, 2020). The intrinsic motivation process does not include providing any monetary rewards or any tangible rewards. Intrinsic motivation includes various types of processes like verbal praise, motivational speech, frequent outings and so on. The main benefit of intrinsic motivation is that intrinsic motivation helps improve the confidence level of individuals and it provides enough importance to mental health and the well being of the people.

As per the opinion of assignment help experts, intrinsic motivation also includes verbal praise, recognition as best employees, providing responsibilities, development of trust and other processes of motivation, intrinsic motivation also inspire the employees of an organization to improve their performances as verbal praise, recognition and other intrinsic rewards also provides mental satisfaction to the employees. It has been revealed in studies that even extrinsic rewards cannot help retain the highly skilled employees when there is no internal satisfaction with the work, supervision and the process of recognizing the efforts of the employees (Adamma et al. 2018). In some cases, when a large number of employees cannot achieve their performance targets even after applying various tactic of extrinsic motivation, they feel embarrassed and often leave the organization as there do not remain chances of getting rewards without achieving the performance targets. However, in this context, intrinsic motivation plays an important role in retaining the highly skilled employees and even the less skilled employees within the organization, and in this process; it becomes easier for an organization to manage integrity between their operations. The overall performance of the organization can also be improved easily by applying various tactics of intrinsic motivation. There does not remain any risk of employee dissatisfaction or an increase of employee turnover rate when an organization solely relies on using intrinsic motivation.

Besides all these benefits, another benefit of intrinsic motivation is that intrinsic motivation can help organizations to save money also even after motivating the employees for improving their performance. In case of extrinsic motivation, an organization needs to do enough planning for controlling the costs behind the extrinsic rewards or the tangible rewards. However, in the case of intrinsic rewards, the organizations do not need to do planning for controlling costs and by applying various tactics of intrinsic motivation the organizations can improve the performance of the employees even without spending money for motivation (Dwenger et al. 2016). Therefore, both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations are important for human lives. However, the theories of motivation often provide enough importance to both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. In this context, we can use Hertzberg’s theory of employee motivation for understanding the importance of both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. To know more students can take help from SourceEssay coursework help experts.

According to Hertzberg’s theory of motivation, the factors that influence the employee satisfaction level in the workplace can be categorized under two groups, namely, the hygiene factors and the motivating factors. The hygiene factors refer to external factors like salary, security, the work itself, monetary rewards and so on (Hattie et al. 2018). On the other hand, the motivating factors include responsibility, recognition, performance appraisal and other motivating factors that can influence the employees internally for performing their roles and responsibilities effectively. According to Hertzberg’s theory, when an organization can effectively manage both factors, then only it becomes possible to motivate the employees of the organization effectively for improving their performance (Vilnai-Yavetz and Levina, 2018). In this context, Hertzberg’s theory of motivation provides enough importance to both the external factors and the processes used for extrinsic motivation as well as the internal satisfaction or the intrinsic motivation of the employees. According to this theory, when both these processes are managed effectively, then only the actual goal of employee motivation can be achieved.

Otherwise, managing only the hygiene factors or providing importance to only extrinsic motivation can keep the employees satisfied with their job but this process cannot help the employees feel motivated for doing something better. In this context, Maslow’s theory of motivation can also be used for understanding the importance of both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation (Scheffer and Heckhausen, 2018). According to Maslow’s theory of motivation, there are various needs of human beings and when all these needs are satisfied properly, and then only it becomes possible to motivate the person truly. The needs of human beings that have been identified in Maslow’s theory are Physiological needs, safety needs, need for love and belongingness, esteem needs and the need for self-actualization.

Physiological needs refer to the needs for food, warmth, and rest and safety needs refer to the need for safety and security. These needs can be satisfied by applying various tactics of extrinsic motivation. On the other hand, the needs for love and belongingness, and esteem needs can be satisfied only by applying various tactics of intrinsic motivation. The need of self-actualization refers to the desire for achieving the ultimate goals of life and this need can be satisfied by proper application of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. Vroom’s theory of motivation also shows a connection between the mental satisfaction and the improvement of the needs of the employees of an organization (Badubi, 2017). According to Vroom’s theory of motivation, it is the inherent nature of human beings to expect praise and monetary rewards instead of their efforts. When the employees get their expected rewards, they become more interested to perform their roles and responsibilities effectively but when the employees do not get expected rewards, they feel depressed and become less interested to perform their roles and responsibilities in the workplace. Therefore, in this context, a connection between the expectation and the feeling of motivation after getting rewards is always there.

In case, there is no mental satisfaction with the process, it becomes difficult to inspire the employees for improving their performance. In most of cases, it has been revealed in studies that the employees want both monetary rewards for improving their financial status and they also expect recognition and esteem within their workplace and some employees also expect opportunities of growth and advancement (Quested et al. 2017). For this reason, it is very much important to use both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation in order to motivate employees effectively. The application of extrinsic motivation can increase the desire for achieving life’s goals, specially the professional goals. On the other hand, the application of intrinsic motivation can help the employees keep satisfied and proper application of both the motivation process can help retain the highly skilled employees within an organization for long term.

Conclusion

The study discusses the importance of extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation and the basic differences between the two concepts. Extrinsic motivation is the process of influencing the individuals to achieve some external goals like achieving rewards, some performance targets or some other career goals. The tactics of extrinsic rewards include providing tangible rewards, various types of monetary rewards, promotion and growth opportunities, and so on. On the other hand, the tactics of intrinsic motivation include verbally praising the efforts of the employees, recognition as best employee, providing responsibilities, and so on. Intrinsic motivation provides enough importance to the internal satisfaction of the individuals. Motivational speeches are also considered as an important tactic of intrinsic motivation. In organizational context, both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation are equally important for inspiring the employees of the organization to perform their roles and responsibilities effectively. The theories of motivation like the Maslow’s theory of needs, Hertzberg’s theory of job satisfaction and Vroom’s theory of employee motivation also provide enough importance to both extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation. The application extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can help improve the performance of the employees and can also help the employees keep satisfied. As a result of it, it becomes easier for the organizations to retain highly skilled employees for long term and the organizations can also achieve their overall performance effectively.

References

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