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Colorectal Cancer Surgery

Colorectal Cancer
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Every year thousands of people die because of colorectal cancer in Australia. It is the third most common type of cancer excluding melanoma claimed 5338 deaths in 2018. The rise of colorectal cancer can be attributed to an increasingly ageing population in developed countries. Other than modern habits, abnormal dietary habits and increased risk factors such as smoking, obesity or low physical exerciserepresenting highest death rate due to cancer in Australia(CancerCouncil,2020).With advanced technologies, new treatments including laparoscopic, palliative macroscopic and more aggressive resection of metastatic diseases and radiotherapy for rectal cancer, these treatment options have had an impact on long term survival. This article provides current area base knowledge on colorectal cancer surgery. 

Introduction

Since 2002, CRC is the most common cancer in the men and the third in the women. Approximately 134490 cases have been recorded every year across the globe. These rates are substantially higher in males than females.

However, the new report released by the American Cancer Society, cancer prevalence is increasing in younger people and decreasing in older people. The report predicted;10 deaths occur in per day in people of 50 years. Despite this disease is more dramatic and rising by 2.2% since the year 2011-2016.

Rebecca Siegal author of the report has said, the overall colorectal cancer is increasing but the mortality is decreasing. Unfortunately, the powerful tools and weapons that can be utilized to reduce the burden of these diseases have not fully utilized.

Being overweight, or disparities in accessing high-quality health care services for instance screening also suggest the prevalence of the disease and patients chance to survive with diseases. According to the American Cancer Society, screening for cancer is started at 45 and its odd preventing measurement entails it should be started at 55 age. Right now screening at 45 is quite abnormal and is not progressing, in lieu of genetic susceptibility, screening takes place, otherwise, it will be done at 55 age. On that scenario, it can be deduced young population are much more likely to get diagnosed at the later stage than those of older people. If you want to know about screening tools used by the Australian health care system for your assignment preparation, you can take assistance from SourceEssay assignment helper Sydney anytime.

Colorectal Cancer Classification And Risk Factor

In the aetiology of colorectal cancer, both environmental and genetic factors play a vital role whereas majority colorectal cancer found to be sporadic. The most common colorectal cancer staging system is TNM(Tumour/nodes/metastasis).  

T denotes the severity of tumour invasion in the intestine

N denotes degree at which lymphatic nodes are involved

M denotes Metastasis degree

Moving onwards, Stage 1, tumour invasion at the intestinal wall or submucosa(T1), muscularispropria else negative lymph nodes. Stage 2 diseases are involved with muscularispropria and penetrating visceral peritoneum. Stage 3 shows diseases is including positive lymph nodes and stage 4 suggesting distinct metastasis along with classifying T and N nodes(Wahab et.al, 2017).

There are many known factors have been analysed and out of which some are modified and some are non-modified. A non-modifiable risk factor includes genetics whereas modifiable risks factors surround dietary habits, obesity, smoking etc. People who have inflammation in the bowel are at risk of colorectal cancer among them the most abundant is hereditary nonpolyposis. Qadir, 2018 have opined Gardner syndrome is highly associated with colon cancer characterized by 100 of thousands developing colon polyps. However, most of the risk factor are visualized frequently when a person smokes at a huge amount, gain excessive weight, is alcoholic etc.

Australia Statistics Of Bowel Cancer

In 2016, colorectal cancer has found to be third most reoccurring cancer in Australia and will be 4th by the end of 2020. Around 15439 cases have been diagnosed in Australia out of which 8340 are males and 5429 are females(Forster,2020). 

Source- AIHW Cancer Data in Australia 2020 web report

When it comes to accessing genetic factors responsible for colon cancer development, it has seen epigenetic alteration, gene mutation, drive colon polyps progression. During DNA methylation CpG-rich regions gene areas get affected which resulted in transcription silence. Due to the hypermethylation of CpG in gene promoters that can salience tumour suppressors leads to oncogenic activities(Feletto et.al, 2019). In the close conjunction of the researchers, many essay helpers have found gut microbiota also plays a vital role in tumour genesis. In nutshell, systematic research is required to analyse colon microbiota and its association its colon cancer. To know such exciting research paper for your assignments, you can also take assistance from SourceEssay renowned essay typer team.

Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis And Treatment

A diagnosis of colorectal cancer either done to examine the current symptoms of patients resulted from screening. Its shows a variety of symptoms like grey stool, abdominal pain, changes in bowel movement etc. Other symptoms may be linked with anaemia, weight loss, shortness in breath. As the widespread technology has been invading, for the symptomatic patients, endoscopy is highly preferable. A range of assessment followed by screening has been listed in the given box with the help of online assignment help Leeds experts-

Endoscopy Techniques

Retrieving detailed picture of gastrointestinal mucosa

It doesn’t provide specific neoplastic location

Chromoendoscopy

A dye spray is being used to get clear picture of gastrointestinal mucosa

Improves neoplastic lesion detection

It is time consuming as dye spread around colon

Magnification Endoscopy

Zoom lens is present at the tip enables 6–150-fold mucosa enlargement(Schreuders et.al, 2015)

Extension and characteristic of neoplastic lesion could be determined

It can be combined with other methods

Narrow Brand Imaging

415 nm (blue) and 540 nm (green) filters were used

Longer wavelength will be less scattered and ably penetrated deeper in the mucosa

Blue lights enhanceappearance of superficial capillaries and green lights shows direction of subethelial tissues

Autofluorescence Endoscopy

This technique is build on white light endoscopy

Based on illumination effect

Emitted light wavelength is longer than neoplastic tissues

Used for search neoplastic location

Endomicroscopy

Enable in vitro visualization of colon polyps

It is not suitable to examine larger lession

Adapted from- Kuiper et.al, 2015

Many online assignment writers have said surgery is the last option to provide curative treatment for patients with non-metastasized colon cancer. However, outcomes are highly concerned with preoperative surgery. 

Conclusion

Over the past decades, colorectal cancer has become the most predominant cancer not only in Australia even in the globe. Despite more advanced treatments and surgery, the mortality rate has been increasing however decline in the older people and most frequently observed in young generation due to late diagnosis. In this blog, we have discussed such aspects of colon cancer along with describing endoscopy techniques. There we have deduced in the aetiology of colorectal cancer, both environmental and genetic factors play a vital role whereas majority colorectal cancer found to be sporadic. There are many known risk factors have been analysed and out of which some are modified and some are not modified. A non-modifiable risk factor includes genetics whereas modifiable risks factors surround dietary habits. Therefore we need to change our dietary habits if we want to win the battle of cancer. 

References

Australia Government Cancer Stats(2020).Bowel cancer (Colorectal cancer) in Australia statistics. Available at-https://www.canceraustralia.gov.au/affected-cancer/cancer-types/bowel-cancer/bowel-cancer-colorectal-cancer-australia-statistics [data accessed on 4 February 2021]

CancerCouncil(2020).What is bowel cancer?. Available at

https://www.cancer.org.au/cancer-information/types-of-cancer/bowel-cancer [data accessed on 4 February 2021]

Forster.V(2020).Younger People Are Increasingly Developing Colorectal Cancer. Experts Are Trying To Find Out Why. Available at-https://www.forbes.com/sites/victoriaforster/2020/03/05/younger-people-are-increasingly-developing-colorectal-cancer-experts-are-trying-to-find-out-why/?sh=212a91dd7d37 [Data Accessed on 4 February 2021]

Feletto, E., Yu, X. Q., Lew, J. B., St John, D. J. B., Jenkins, M. A., Macrae, F. A., … &Canfell, K. (2019). Trends in colon and rectal cancer incidence in Australia from 1982 to 2014: analysis of data on over 375,000 cases. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention Biomarkers, 28(1), 83-90.

Qudayr, Asmah& Kabel, Ahmed &Abdelmaboud, Maaly& Alghamdi, Waleed &Alghorabi, Amala. (2018). Colorectal Cancer: New Perspectives. Cancer Research and Treatment. 6. 80-83. 10.12691/jcrt-6-3-4.

Schreuders, E. H., Ruco, A., Rabeneck, L., Schoen, R. E., Sung, J. J., Young, G. P., &Kuipers, E. J. (2015). Colorectal cancer screening: a global overview of existing programmes. Gut64(10), 1637-1649.

Wahab, S. R., Islam, F., Gopalan, V., & Lam, A. K. Y. (2017). The identifications and clinical implications of cancer stem cells in colorectal cancer. Clinical colorectal cancer, 16(2), 93-102.

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