Fundamentally, it is seen that a syndrome is the set of medical signs as well as symptoms that are correlated with each other and often related to any specific diseases or disorders. It is often observed that people mixes up diseases with syndrome. A disease can be defined as the health condition that has significant and transparent reason behind that; however, syndrome might produce certain number of symptoms that might not have any reason that is identifiable. When a disease incurs in an established condition or situation, whereas, syndrome is a group of syndrome that might not have any established condition. In this accordance, it can be said that there are several types of syndrome, but, the current discussion below would critically evolve through Tourette syndrome to assess its potential causes as well as effects on human being. Tourette is considered as neurological disorder and it is not any sort of mental disorder. Further insights can be gained regarding this disorder through the following discussions.
Overview : Tourette Syndrome
Tourette syndrome can be defined as the nervous system disorder that involves repetitive movements or any sort of unwanted sounds. Tourette or too-RET syndrome (TS) cannot be controlled. This syndrome is most likely to be start in childhood. When children starts to repetitively do same movements or unwanted sounds like; continuously blinking eyes, shrugging their shoulders or blurting out any offensive or unnecessary, unusual sounds; disorder keeps on rising leading towards Tourette syndrome (Pringsheim et al. 2019). This neurological disorder or syndrome has been named after Georges Gilles de la Tourette, who has worked on it. The researches on Tourette Syndrome have shown that previously, TS was considered as the rare as well as bizarre syndrome that was popularly connected with coprolalia. Coprolalia is the utterances of words obscenity or inappropriate in society and remarking derogatory. However, with the passing age, it has been found that TS is no longer a rare syndrome as at present around 1% of children, who are in the age of going to school and also adolescents are observed to have Tourette syndrome. To know more take assistance from online assignment help experts of SourceEssay.
On the other hand, World Health Organisation or WHO has addressed this disorder slightly differently by defining TS as disorder that is combination of vocal and multiple motor tics. This common neurodevelopmental disorder is characterized by several movement or motor tics and minimum of one vocal or phonic tic. As it is seen that common tics involve blinking, throat clearing, and coughing as well as sniffing and facial movements, however, these are basically preceded through an unwanted sensation or urge in affected muscles that is known as the premonitory urge. It can be suppressed sometimes temporarily followed by changing in location as well as strength and frequency characteristically. Therefore, it is observed that Tourette’s scenario is more severe with end of certain spectrum of tic disorder and can be often unnoticed by normal observers. However, genetic studies have shown that tic disorder cover certain spectrum that has not been recognised by clear cut distinctions in context to the present framework for diagnosis (Quezada & Coffman, 2018). From 2008, studies have viewed and suggested Tourette to not be considered as unitary situation with different mechanism as defined by existing classification process. Rather than that, studies have recommended that subtypes needs to be addressed for differentiating pure TS from TS that has been accompanied through ADHD or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD).
Thus, by exploring what particularly Tourette Syndrome (TS) is through its overview, it can be easily understood that TS is common neurological disorder that tends to be occur from the early stages of childhood and adolescence and can keep on occurring. Tourette syndrome is most likely to be characterized through the tics or movements and might have co-occurring conditions like having mood and anxiety disorder with TS (Gilbert et al. 2018). Therefore, in order to bring more clarity to the discussion, it is necessary to explore and identify particularly what could be core reasons or causes that could create occurrence of Tourette syndrome.
Causes And Risk Factors Of Tourette Syndrome
Tourette is linked to different parts of brain involving the area called Basal Ganglia that helps in controlling body movements. The differences might affect nerve cells as well as the chemicals carrying message between them. Therefore, problems in that particular area might be the cause for Tourette syndrome. However, the exact cause of Tourette syndrome is still unknown. It is more likely to be a complex disorder that is further likely to be caused by particular inherited or genetic combination as well as environmental factors (Billnitzer & Jankovic, 2020). Along with that, chemicals in the brain transmitting nerve impulses or neurotransmitters including serotonin and dopamine also could play a significant role in causing Tourette syndrome. Although, according to essay typer the risks factors causes and for Tourette Syndrome is still unknown and under continuous research, however, till now the research studies have shown that genes play major role.
- Genetics studies have denoted that Tourette syndrome is generally inherited as dominant gene with around 50% of scope that parents or family could pass the gene on to the children
- Boys with genes are three to four times are more likely to display TS symptom compared to girls
- TS can be further triggered by breakdown of abnormal metabolism of chemical in brain called dopamine.
Furthermore, certain researches have shown that Tourette syndrome is genetically complex disorder that is most likely to occur as the result of impact of multiple genes interacting with other factors within the environment. Thus, scientists are continually working on identifying other possible causes and environment risk factors that contribute towards Tourette syndrome (Martinez-Ramirez et al. 2018). Based on present research studies, some risks factors have been addressed that could lead towards TS. These factors are such as;
- Smoking during the time of pregnancy
- Complications during pregnancy
- Having lower birth weight
Thus, in accordance with the discussions in above, it is certain that family history or genetic factors and environmental factors related works as risk factors that give rise to Tourette syndrome.
Symptoms Of Tourette Syndrome
Considering the above discussion, it can be stated that due to Tourette syndrome there might be certain syndromes which can be faced by the human being at different times. It can be stated that different emotional aspects, like, behaviour, muscular as well as mood of the people can be affected under different circumstances. Now, it is important to properly discuss about the symptoms of Tourette syndrome in this context. The discussion is as follows;
Behavioural: Due to this syndrome, the behaviour of the people can be negatively affected in this context. Compulsive behaviour, impulsivity as well as hyperactivity can be faced by the people. Moreover, individual can repeat their own words continuously; sometimes they utter nonsense words on repetitive mode (Pringsheim et al. 2019). Along with that, it can be seen that people do some repetitive movements or they swear uncontrollably which is totally unexpected from them. Individual with this syndrome sometimes could have lack of restraint.
Muscular: Individuals could face problems with their muscle also as sometimes, they can have tics. This can be the key symptoms of this syndrome and sometimes these tics can be so mild that no one can notice initially. These tics can be simple as well as complex depend on the nature. Simple tics therefore can affect few parts of the body whereas complex one can affect many parts of the body in this context. In accordance to this, it can be identified that, there might be two types of tics, namely, motor tics as well as vocal tics (Müller-Vahl et al. 2021). People could have eyes blinking, herd or arm jerking, mouth twitching as well as shoulder shrugging if they are going through motor tics. On the other side, if people face vocal tics, then they can face issues like, throat clearing, barking, grunting, coughing, shouting, sniffing as well as swearing. Along with that, symptoms like, excitement, stress, sick or tired can be the one individual could face.
Along with these two categories, there might be other symptoms also. People can face anxiety or apprehension which further can make huge problem with their daily lives under different circumstances.
Effects Of Tourette Syndrome
In context to evaluating the effects of Tourette syndrome, it can be stated that this is the neurological disorder that affects nerves and brain both and tics occurring due to TS cannot be controlled or prevented. Additionally, it is also seen that at certain times to control TS, doctors prescribes the medication of neuroleptics for the Tourette. However, this use of neuroleptics further gives rise to some side effects including movement tardive dyskinesia disorder or repetitive body movement disorder (Albin, 2018). The in-depth insights shows that as Tourette syndrome involve severity of tics, therefore, the repetitive body movement in certain pattern either by shoulder shrugging continuously, eye darting or nose twitching continuously in a particular manner could create chronic pain in those parts of body. Therefore, Tourette syndrome creates body suffering and painful effects as well. Furthermore, it is also to be considered that as TS generally occurs in the early stages of childhood; therefore, children and adolescents are the one who gets mostly affected through Tourette syndrome. Therefore, it can be seen that tics in Tourette syndrome when becomes severe can cause chronic pain and fatigue among the children. Therefore, it interferes with the learning process of a child. In this accordance, it can be said that TS negatively affects the learning and growth of a child who is suffering from this disorder (Johnson et al. 2019). Additionally, it can also be seen that Tourette syndrome can also affect schooling due to its impact on social relationships as well as peer problems. It is often observed that children with TS get bullied by friends or in social gatherings, which create adverse effects. Therefore, Tourette children can have face psychological or mental issues due to the adverse effects of TS. To know more about effects of Tourette Syndrome ,take biology dissertation help from SourceEssay today.
Diagnosis Of Tourette Syndrome
Now this is essential to properly discuss about the diagnosis system for Tourette syndrome, so that people can understand how they can be treated if they face any kind of issues due to this syndrome. In relation to this, it can be stated that there is no effective tests for this syndrome, therefore, diagnosis will totally depend on signs or symptoms of the people which they are facing at present or diagnosists will check the medical and family history to give a proper treatment to the individual (Stafford & Cavanna, 2020). However, there might be certain criteria which should be presented for a proper diagnosis of Tourette syndrome in this context. Following are some criteria, such as,
- Individual who have two or more motor tics, like, blinking as well as shoulder shrugging or who are facing issue with at least one vocal tic like, either humming or throat clearing, they need to be diagnosed. This is important to note that these tics might not always occur at the same time
- The person needs to be diagnosed if they had tics for last one or two years and that tic can appear throughput the whole or every day (Cox, Seri & Cavanna, 2018)
- Diagnosis for this syndrome is needed if the person or individual is suffering from tics before the age of 18 years
- Individual who are suffering from the syndrome which is totally not related to consumption of other drugs or medications which they are taking for their other medical conditions need to be treated properly
Following the above discussion, it can be stated that there might be some other conditions as well, because of which diagnosis is needed for this syndrome. Those conditions can be as follows;
- Individuals are facing allergies from coughing or sniffing
- If people could have dystonia, which is the neurological condition that could contain some involuntary movements as well as some prolonged muscle contraction which further can lead to twisted body motion, tremor as well as abnormal posture (Jankovic et al. 2021)
- People with restless leg syndrome which affect the movements of the legs
- People who can suffer from the vision problem and if they continuous blink need the diagnosis in this context
Treatment Of Tourette Syndrome
Significantly, in regards to the discussion in above, it can be stated that treatment is required for Tourette syndrome as it creates both adverse effect on human being both physically and mentally. Although, it has been found that there is for TS completely, however, continuous treatment or observation with support of medication can help in managing people with Tourette syndrome who are also having OCD or ADHD or learning difficulties disorders (Tsetsos et al. 2021). Treatment would normally include medication as well as non-pharmacological treatments and in very rare cases surgery might be an option.
The medications for Tourette syndrome could involve relaxants of muscle, neuroleptics and antihypertensives.
- Relaxants of Muscle: It would help in controlling physical tics through treating spasticity that is the time when muscle would become stiffer.
- Neurolptics: This medication would block effects of dopamine in brain and this can be consumed both orally and through injection. It would be able to treat moderate to severe symptoms of Tourette syndrome. However, side effects like; blurred vision, dry mouth or disruptive body movement can occur due to this medication. If the side effects are severe then patients are required to consult immediately with the doctors. (Farber et al. 2021)
- Antihypertensives: Another medication option is antihypertensive that are generally used for controlling hypertension. So, people with moderate symptoms of TS could be treated through it by possibly regulating the levels of neurotransmitter.
On the other hand, despite medications, there are also non-pharmacological treatments available for treating TS. In this context, it can be observed that behavioural therapy is the commonly used treatment that is used TS patients in changing their behaviour. Studies have researched that Comprehensive Behavioural Intervention for Tics (CBIT) is the cognitive therapy for behaviour that helps children as well as adults with TS by aiming at treating TS symptoms through reversing habits (Roessner et al. 2021). According to make my assignment help experts the process of reversal habits would include patients of TS being unaware of their tics and alleviating unwanted and uncomfortable sensations prior to their occurrence.
Henceforth, the discussion in above has shown that Tourette syndrome is not any mental disorder as it is a neurological disorder. Furthermore, the overall discussion has shown that exact causes of Tourette syndrome is not curtained and still under continuous research process. However, in most of the cases, for this syndrome, medical science has found that there are either family factors like; hereditary issues as well as physical or psychological and also environmental factors that are considered as the risks factors of a syndrome. Therefore, the risks factors are seemed to be mostly affecting the children and adolescents. It disrupts the continuous learning and growth process of a child. Therefore, with each passing time Tourette patient whether children or an adult faces physical and psychological or mental issues. Furthermore, the researchers have also viewed that until the date TS has not been confirmed as the curable completely. However, continuous improvements are being made in medications and behavioural treatments to control the severity of this neurological disorder.
Albin, R. L. (2018). Tourette syndrome: a disorder of the social decision-making network. Brain, 141(2), 332-347.Retrieved from:https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/141/2/332/4091478[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Billnitzer, A., & Jankovic, J. (2020). Current management of tics and tourette syndrome: behavioral, pharmacologic, and surgical treatments. Neurotherapeutics, 1-13.Retrieved from:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13311-020-00914-6[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Cox, J. H., Seri, S., &Cavanna, A. E. (2018). Sensory aspects of Tourette syndrome. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, 88, 170-176.Retrieved from:https://publications.aston.ac.uk/id/eprint/33055/1/Sensory_aspects_of_Tourette_syndrome.pdf[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Farber, R. H., Angelov, A., Kim, K., Carmack, T., Thai-Cuarto, D., & Roberts, E. (2021). Clinical development of valbenazine for tics associated with Tourette syndrome. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 21(4), 393-404.Retrieved from:https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/14737175.2021.1898948[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Gilbert, D. L., Murphy, T. K., Jankovic, J., Budman, C. L., Black, K. J., Kurlan, R. M., … &Chipkin, R. E. (2018). Ecopipam, a D1 receptor antagonist, for treatment of tourette syndrome in children: A randomized, placebo‐controlled crossover study. Movement Disorders, 33(8), 1272-1280.Retrieved from:https://facultyopinions.com/prime/733961507[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Jankovic, J., Coffey, B., Claassen, D. O., Jimenez-Shahed, J., Gertz, B. J., Garofalo, E. A., … &Harary, E. (2021). Safety and efficacy of flexible-dose deutetrabenazine in children and adolescents with Tourette syndrome: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA network open, 4(10), e2128204-e2128204.Retrieved from:https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2784765[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Johnson, K. A., Fletcher, P. T., Servello, D., Bona, A., Porta, M., Ostrem, J. L., … &Butson, C. R. (2019). Image-based analysis and long-term clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome: a multisite study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 90(10), 1078-1090.Retrieved from:https://jnnp.bmj.com/content/90/10/1078.abstract[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Martinez-Ramirez, D., Jimenez-Shahed, J., Leckman, J. F., Porta, M., Servello, D., Meng, F. G., … & Okun, M. S. (2018). Efficacy and safety of deep brain stimulation in Tourette syndrome: the international Tourette syndrome deep brain stimulation public database and registry. JAMA neurology, 75(3), 353-359.Retrieved from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc5885852/[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Müller-Vahl, K. R., Szejko, N., Verdellen, C., Roessner, V., Hoekstra, P. J., Hartmann, A., & Cath, D. C. (2021). European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders: summary statement. European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 1-6.Retrieved from:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-021-01832-4[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Pringsheim, T., Holler-Managan, Y., Okun, M. S., Jankovic, J., Piacentini, J., Cavanna, A. E., … &Oskoui, M. (2019). Comprehensive systematic review summary: treatment of tics in people with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. Neurology, 92(19), 907-915.Retrieved from:https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc6537130/[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Pringsheim, T., Okun, M. S., Müller-Vahl, K., Martino, D., Jankovic, J., Cavanna, A. E., … &Piacentini, J. (2019). Practice guideline recommendations summary: treatment of tics in people with Tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorders. Neurology, 92(19), 896-906.Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6537133/ [Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Quezada, J., & Coffman, K. A. (2018). Current approaches and new developments in the pharmacological management of Tourette syndrome. CNS drugs, 32(1), 33-45.Retrieved from:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40263-017-0486-0[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Roessner, V., Eichele, H., Stern, J. S., Skov, L., Rizzo, R., Debes, N. M., … &Plessen, K. J. (2021). European clinical guidelines for Tourette syndrome and other tic disorders—version 2.0. Part III: pharmacological treatment. European child & adolescent psychiatry, 1-17.Retrieved from:https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00787-021-01899-z[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Stafford, M., &Cavanna, A. E. (2020). Prevalence and clinical correlates of self-injurious behavior in Tourette syndrome. Neuroscience &Biobehavioral Reviews, 113, 299-307.Retrieved from:http://pure-oai.bham.ac.uk/ws/files/96505201/1_s2.0_S0149763419311728_main.pdf[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]
Tsetsos, F., Yu, D., Sul, J. H., Huang, A. Y., Illmann, C., Osiecki, L., … & Woods, D. (2021). Synaptic processes and immune-related pathways implicated in Tourette syndrome. Translational psychiatry, 11(1), 1-12.Retrieved from:https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-020-01082-z[Retrieved on 22.01.2022]