Specialized Cells : Types & Functions

Specialized Cells


Different cells of the body perform particular functions on the basis of the respective biological needs of the body. This section is lost particular types and functions of the specialised cells. Firstly it is important to determine what specialised cells are. Our body is amazing feature of engineering work. It has miles of nerve fibres as well as blood basis. There are many seat of digestive system with a free potential skeletal framework along with a protective covering. It is even more amazing that all of these elements are developed with only a single component which is the human body cell (Delevoye, Marks and Raposo, 2019).

Cell is generally defined by researchers as the basic unit of life. It makes perfect sense provided that every component in our body is composed of the cells. However not all cells are similar in their composition and a rendition. In fact the body is developed by more than 200 categories of specialised cells. The term specialised implies that even the cells are similar in the outlook the different their shape and size and function on the basis of the role they perform in the human body.

Nerve Cells

Nerve cells are popularly called neurones. The neurones are bundled together in development of a rope like structure which will branch throughout our body for the formation of the nervous systems. The neurones are the composing unit of the nervous System. The neurones are found in the human brain along with other specialised body parts like our spinal cord and nervous all over the body. The job of these neurones is sending messages which they do through electrical synapse and impulses (Alvarez et al., 2019). The impulse is rend from one synapse to another. The not between different types of sinuses of the nutrients in different parts of the body are different. The long and sustainable connection at each end of the nervous cell on urine makes each nerve cell different from the other in the body. These connections helps in transmission of messages rapidly from one uan to another with the help of inter neurone synapses. Some gestures and actions can be described to explain the working of neurones in the body. As we accidentally touch something hot and jerk hour hand away it might happen in a flash however the neurones are doing a lot of work within this short span of time. The pain is perceived as the neurones at the nerve ending of the hand since the heat energy. This message is sent immediately by the nutrients to the brain (Lin, Mintern and Gleeson, 2020). The nutrients present in the brain then send a message of pain back at the hand. At the same time the nutrients present in the brain also sends a codified message to the arm muscles telling them to move the hand away from the source of heat these actions are however actualized by the specialised abilities of neurones in the transmitting rapidly electrically infused messages throughout the body. To know more about nerve cell you can take help from biology dissertation help experts from SourceEssay.

Red Blood Cells

The circulatory system of the body is the route taken by the cells in the body to get Oxygen and nutrients required for their growth. However blood is the real carrier of Oxygen and all nutrients to different parts of the body. Blood is composed of plasma which is a yellowish fluid in the liquid state composed of 90% water. Along with water the plasma contains salt and sugar and other minute substances. Most importantly the plasma contains proteins which carry important nutrients to the cells of the body to strengthen the immune system of the body so that it can easily fight infection. There are 10 to 12 pints of blood in human body on an average. The average blood in the body of woman is between 8 and 9 pints. Blood is referred to as a tissue also (Šola, Dean and Haughn, 2018). It is thick because blood is composed of different kind of cells each having a specialised job. Blood is actually 80% water with 20% solid carried in the liquid stream. Blood is composed of plasma however there are three important components of blood cells, which circulate the plasma.

In the view point of essay typer platelets help the blood to clot. The clothing will stop the blood flow out of the body whenever there is damage to the vein or tissue. Platelets are also referred to as thrombocytes. The red blood cells are responsible for carrying oxygen. Out of the three types red blood cells are most plentiful and vital to the body also. In fact healthy adult have about thirty five trillion of red blood cells in their body. The body is responsible for creating the red blood cells at a rate of about 2.4 million every second which have a lifespan about 120 days (Rutter et al., 2020). Red blood cells are also referred to as erythrocytes. The next in line are the white blood cells which are responsible for fighting infection. White blood cells have different shapes and sizes and doors are very vital to the immune system of the body. During fighting infection the body manufactures rows in a ever-increasing number. Still compared to the number of the red blood cells the number of white blood cells is actually lower. Most of the healthy adults have around 700 times as many red blood cells as the white blood cells. The white blood cells are also called leukocytes. Other than these three kinds of components the blood also contains hormones with cardboard rates and proteins and fats. Sometimes the blood carries gases as well (Schreiner, 2019). The cells in the body are responsible for primary carrying oxygen from lungs and nutrients from digestive tract to individual cells of the entire body. It is also responsible for carrying the carbon dioxide away along with the waste products which are not required in the body. Blood cells are responsible for maintaining optimum temperature of the body and fighting infection by sending antibodies.

Muscle Cells

According to thesis help experts muscle cells are responsible for making movement possible in the body. These cells are cylindrical in shape and they are composed of banded fibres which allow contraction of the muscles in the body. The functioning of these categories of specialised cells in the body helps in completion of assortment of different tasks which are based on movement of the limbs and other parts of the body (Golchin, Hosseinzadeh and Ardeshirylajimi, 2018). The muscle cells are present in many numbers in the human body in jointed together for a creation of the larger body structures like the arm muscles of the leg muscles which allowed the human body to practically move. In presence of Jesus cells the minute features like amoeba and paramecium and not able to easily transfer their body from one place to another.

Sperm Cells

The specialised sperm cells are invincible for the act of human reproduction. These cells primary develop from A nucleus and the cells are predominantly are nucleus wrapped with surrounding affiliated ancillary elements. Unlike some stationary cells of the body these are highly mobile and are generally projected to move and locate the egg for fertilization to happen. In the presence of provide the necessary energy required by these specialised cells to move at such high rate of speed. To know more about sperm cells, Students can take help from online assignment help experts.


Leukocytes are another kind of specialised cells in the body. These are also necessary to keep human body free from any kind of infection. However their work responsibility is slightly different in comparison to the white blood cells. They are basically responsible for finding and destroying any microbe configuration within the internal environment of the human body. There for perpetual if they also respond and treats infection within the interior environment of the body. It is important that the leukocyte cells should move from one location to the impending site of the infection within the human body. Therefore their activity within the body is also of mobile in nature (Harrer, Doerrie and Schaft, 2018). These cells are specialised in even pushing through capillary walls within the organs of the body. However the same is done when ever decide to reach the sites of infection at a great piece. This is also the reason why the structuring of the leukocytes is largely flexible and they are highly capable of shifting their shapes as and when required to move from one place in the body to another. In their case the shape shifting capability is necessary to move throughout the main body and target infection.


In a concluding statement, it can be highlighted that respective cells in the body are modified to perform in specialised ways, according to the need of the body. The specialised cells group together informing the tissues in the body which in returned group together informing the organs like our heart and stomach and skin and so on. The organs also come together informing the systems like our respiratory system or nervous system or our digestive system and so on. These systems of the body again come together to give the formation to the overall body. It makes sense that a single muscle cell will be different in the type and function than a nerve cell or that of a bone cell.

Reference List

Alvarez, F., Istomine, R., Shourian, M., Pavey, N., Al-Aubodah, T.A.F., Qureshi, S., Fritz, J.H. and Piccirillo, C.A., 2019. The alarmins IL-1 and IL-33 differentially regulate the functional specialisation of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells during mucosal inflammation. Mucosal immunology, 12(3), pp.746-760.

Delevoye, C., Marks, M.S. and Raposo, G., 2019. Lysosome-related organelles as functional adaptations of the endolysosomal system. Current opinion in cell biology59, pp.147-158.

Golchin, A., Hosseinzadeh, S. and Ardeshirylajimi, A., 2018. The exosomes released from different cell types and their effects in wound healing. Journal of cellular biochemistry119(7), pp.5043-5052.

Harrer, D.C., Doerrie, J. and Schaft, N., 2018. Chimeric antigen receptors in different cell types: new vehicles join the race. Human gene therapy29(5), pp.547-558.

Lin, X.P., Mintern, J.D. and Gleeson, P.A., 2020. Macropinocytosis in different cell types: similarities and differences. Membranes10(8), p.177.

Rutter, G.A., Georgiadou, E., Martinez-Sanchez, A. and Pullen, T.J., 2020. Metabolic and functional specialisations of the pancreatic beta cell: gene disallowance, mitochondrial metabolism and intercellular connectivity. Diabetologia63(10), pp.1990-1998.

Schreiner, E. 2019. 6 Types of Freely Movable Joints (2022). Available at: https://sciencing.com/6-types-freely-movable-joints-6323030.html (Accessed: 11 January 2022).

Šola, K., Dean, G.H. and Haughn, G.W., 2018. Arabidopsis seed mucilage: a specialised extracellular matrix that demonstrates the structure–function versatility of cell wall Polysaccharides. Annual plant reviews online, pp.1085-1116.

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