Neurology And Reliability Of Long-Term Memory



The development of long-term memories involves a function required essentially for the adaptive survival of a human being. However, in the past couple of decades, there has been considerable progress made in the evaluation of the biological bases associated with the formation of memory. Then again, the identification of the related mechanisms needed for both the consolidation as well as reconsolidation of memory whereas the processes through which the postretrieval and post-training frangible memory traces got even insensitive and stronger to disruption, ended up indicating emerging approaches to treat and investigate psychopathologies. Be that as it may, in this following discussion, some core and influential neurological mechanisms considered to be critical for strengthening and consolidation of memory, are going to be analysed, evaluated and discussed with taking consideration into the mechanisms and roles associated with the reconsolidation of memory. In addition to that, the discussion is also going to enlighten the way, the interface with both reconsolidations as well as consolidation would be capable of modulating the storage or/and retention of memories which would again be connected to neurology.

The Definition Of Neurology

The term neurology can be defined as one of the branches of medical science dealing with a memory disorder or the dysfunction of the nervous system. However, neurology is responsible for dealing with both the treatment and diagnosis of different categories of diseases and conditions including the peripheral as well as central nervous systems along with their autonomic, somatic and subdivision nervous systems. It would likewise include the blood vessels, coverings and the effector tissue like the muscle of the peripheral and central nervous system with relying on heavily the domain of neuroscience which is nothing but the scientific analysis of the nervous system (Shieldset al.2017, p.55).

The Concept Of Long-Term Memory And The Neurological Basis Associated With The Same:

Figure 1. The formation of long-term memory and its neurological basis
(Source: Rappet al.2016, p.104)

Memory is all about the capability of information retention and recalling the same at a later time. Additionally, it is considered to be a biologically basic function required for the survival of human beings. Then again, memories are responsible for shaping the identity of a human being, what this means is that who an individual would be are because of their memories and that would guide the decisions as well as thoughts of people resulting in influencing their emotional reactions to specific situations. Assignment help experts said, memories would exist in various forms with relying heavily on distinct neural systems (Furlanelloet al.2016, p.155). In addition to that, depending on the duration of them, memories would be divided into long and short-term. It is needed to be mentioned here that short-term memory is all about the capability of holding as well as recalling information for a short duration of time, typically for a few minutes or seconds. On the other hand, long-term memories are responsible for preserving information for a long duration of time, sometimes for the lifetime of an individual. However, both long and short term memories would be categorised depending on the biological mechanisms associated with them whilst the former would be accompanied by both the functional as well as the structural changes associated with the neural networks that would need the expression of the de novo gene, the latter would depend on the present networks along with the post translational changes (Agrawalet al.2018, p.109).

It is investigated that memories would likewise be classified based on their behavioural manifestation reflecting the utilisation of the distinct hidden memory systems or networks. For instance, one of the major distinctions would be between the implicit like procedural or explicit such as declarative memories. On the other hand, the declarative memories are considered as memories that would consciously be recalled like those of the events, facts and people whereas procedural memories are the ones that are responsible for preserving the critical information relating to the skills, such as riding a bicycle, playing the guitar or driving a car and so on like these (Ketzet al.2018, p.98).  Whereas declarative memories are signified for involving critically the medial temporal lobe, and specifically the hippocampus, the procedural memories recruit critically the cerebellum. Instead of this deviation, memories would at times be complex with being developed from a range of different experiences which may end up involving several memory systems continue to interact with each other (Tramoni-Negreet al.2017, p.133).  To know more, take homework assignment help online from SourceEssay experts.

In the past two decades, a key interest of the neuroscientists revolved around the identification of the mechanisms of biology that would underlie the storage and formation of memories. However, researches in invertebrate mechanisms such as Drosophila melanogaster and Aplysia Californica have nurtured the understanding of cellular and molecular discoveries associated with vertebrates and specifically in the mammalian systems.  On the other hand, the investigation carried out in a majority of studies was on the temporal lobe-based memories (Ketzet al.2018, p.98). From molecular, genetic, anatomical and electrophysiological researches, it has figured out that the molecular changes at various levels, transcriptional, translational and posttranslational would end up playing an influential role in the formation of long-term memory. However, all these modifications would incorporate both the usual mechanisms related to the long-run plasticity that would take place in different regions of the brain and with different paradigms including the long-term changes along with the selective mechanisms, that would be identified in cell populations as well as the particular regions of the brain (Bukhariet al.2020, p.223).

However, one of the usual features associated with the formation of long-term memory across the species and memory systems would be that a memory that has newly been encoded exists initially in a weaker state with being disrupted quite easily through different kinds of interfaces, from molecular to behavioural to pharmacological. However, with the changing time, the memory gets stronger with being resilient to the disruptions. It is worth mentioning here that this method of stabilization and strengthening is termed memory consolidation. After getting consolidated, so that interfaces from insensitive, the memory would be considered to be stored and fixed. Be that as it may, the research works which have particularly been revived in the past 15 years have indicated that a memory that ended up becoming insensitive to different types of molecular interfaces, would be adequately capable of becoming labile again in case it would be reactivated, such as through the retrievals (Moshtaghet al.2021, p.221).

Then again, the post retrieval fragility which might take place after the acquisition would temporarily be restricted on top of that the memory would end up returning to a stabilized state by means of a process called reconsolidation. It is analysed that consolidation, as well as reconsolidation, would involve stages during which the memory would be vulnerable to the interfaced as well as at the time of weakening or strengthening of the memory trace got to be accomplished (Liuet al.2019, p.77). my assignment help said it is needed to be mentioned here that this specific understanding plays a very crucial role in the significant clinical practices, for example in the principles, as per the mechanisms of both the consolidation as well as the reconsolidation, it would be possible to add value to the memories that might easily be lost or the fragile memories or weaken the very strong memories conversely with connecting to psychopathologies, such as the ones associated with substance abuse, anxiety or post traumatic stress disorder and so on (Furlanelloet al.2016, p.155).

The Divisions Of Long-Term Memory And The Reliability Of Each Of The Divisions

Figure 2. The divisions of long-term memory
(Source: Rappet al.2016, p.104)

Explicit Memory:

An explicit memory generally comprises all the information and memories that would consciously be evoked. Additionally, the explicit memories would be encoded in the hippocampus yet they would be stored in a place that exists in the temporal lobe of the brain. Then again, the clinical temporal lobe would likewise be engaged in this kind of memory with damaging to the memory temporal lobe is connected to a fragile explicit memory. It is worth notifying here in this specific context that explicit memory is also termed declarative memory which is categorized into two different categories namely the semantic and episodic memory (Ariñoet al.2016, p.109).

Episodic Memory:

Episodic memory is responsible for storing information relating to incidents that taken place in the life of a person. However, it refers to getting aware of the place and time along with the other details of the incidents. For example, the memory of the marriage day or memory of an international tour and events that took place there are episodic memories (Seoet al.2019, p.87).

Semantic Memory:

Semantic memory is all about the preservation of the factual details of information like general knowledge about different things or the meaning of words etc. for instance, having the knowledge that Pluto is the smallest planet of the solar system. However, semantic memory would include conscious ideas and thoughts whilst there are negligible deviations that have been noticed whilst encoding the semantic details in younger and adult people (Krishanet al.2019, p.67).

Implicit Memory:

Implicit memory would be defined as the opposite of explicit or declarative memory, which would involve the body movement in utilizing different objects. For example, knowing the process of driving a car would be an implicit memory. Multiple areas in a brain may incorporate parietal, occipital and basal ganglia regions that would be engaged in implicit memory functions. In addition to that this kind of memory would largely be independent of the hippocampus. Notwithstanding that, riding, swimming, writing and driving are the examples associated with implicit memory since they all non-declarative. However, college assignment helper defined there are four sub-sections associated with implicit memory, namely procedural, associative, non-associative and priming memory (Namboodiriet al.2019, p.332).

Procedural Memory:

Procedural memory can be defined as the memory related to the motor skills whilst it would be responsible for getting aware of the way of doing things. Additionally, this is an automatic memory, what this means is that it functions at the unconscious level whereas these types of memories would be non-declarative with being automatically retrieved for in different procedures which would include the motor skills, such as, driving a car is a kind of procedural memory (Skodziket al.2017, p.224).

Associative Memory:

Associative memory would be defined as the storage as well as retrieval of particular information with the help of association. However, it is noticed that the acquisition of this kind of memory would be conducted with two various conditioning. One of the conditioning is called classical conditioning whereas the other conditioning is termed operant conditioning. Be that as it may, classical conditioning involves the process of learning in which both behaviours, as well as stimuli, would be associated. On the other hand, operant conditioning involves a process of learning in which new behaviour gets to be developed depending on the consequences (Cocoet al.2021, p.54).

Non-Associative Memory:

In the case of non-associative memory, it is noticed that learning or understanding of new behaviour takes place mainly because of repeated exposure to one kind of stimuli. In addition to that, the new behaviour would be classified into sensitization and habituation. However, sensitization is all about an enhanced response to a repeated stimulus. On the other hand, habituation is nothing but a decrease in response to a repeated stimulus (Lópezet al.2016, p.98).

Priming Memory:

Researches studies in the field of neurology and reliability of long-term memory have indicated that exposure to some stimuli is responsible for influencing the response of an individual to a particular stimulus that would later be presented. Be that as it may, this impact associated with memory on a new circumstance or information would be what is termed as priming memory (Ariñoet al.2016, p.109). Need to know more, take free assignment help from SourceEssay experts

The Reliability Of The Long-Term Memory Compared To The Short-Term Memory

Figure 3. The reliability of long-term memory
(Source: Utochkin and Brady, 2020, p.104

Long-term memory involves the preservation of information for a long duration of time. In addition to that, the long-term memory is considered as the end stage in the method of memory processing on top of that the information preserved in the long-term memory would end up lasting longer than that of the short-term memory. Be that as it may, long-term memory is belied to decay very less with time whilst it can easily be recalled. It is analysed that the conscious mind of humans would not be aware of the information preserved in the long-term memory. However, this information would again be recollected with accuracy and ease. for instance, the long memory involves the recollection of the significant incidents of distant past like the skills of riding a bike a person may learn in their childhood. It is worth pointing out here in this specific context of the discussion that certain things become influential parts of long-term memory quite easily whereas the remaining ones might require consistent practice for being preserved for a long duration of time. It would likewise vary from one individual to another. Some persons are capable enough of retaining complex memories with no or little effort whilst others might need to struggle enough in retaining daily and easier life information (Lópezet al.2016, p.98).

On the other hand, long-term memory would usually be described in contrast to short-term memory which may last for only about 18 seconds to 30 seconds as shown in researches whereas long-term memories end up lasting for several months to years or sometimes for decades. Be that as it may, the efficiency associated with long-term memory has been researched to be unlimited unlike short-term memory as well as working memory. Then again, several types of research have indicated that various kinds of long-term memories would be preserved in various regions of the human brain (Utochkin and Brady, 2020, p.104).  In it investigated that the long-term memory involves the final stage associated with the multi-store model of memory as per the proposal of Atkinson Shiffrin, mentioning that the lasting recollection of the skills and information. Theoretically, the capability of long-term memory would be unlimited whereas the key constraint on recollection would be accessibility instead of availability. Applying the computer analogy, assignment helper opined the skill or information in the long-term memory would be more of the information preserved in the hard drive of a computer system. Therefore, it can be said that it would not be on the desktop which is equivalent to short-term memory in this case, but the information can be pulled up when it would be required, most of the time at least (Cocoet al.2021, p.54).

Duration And Capacity Of Long-Term Memory

Figure 4. The duration and capacity associated with long-term memory
(Source: Harriset al.2018, p.11

When it comes to discussing the duration and capacity of long-term memory, it can be said that these features can be measured through paying attention to the quality of information that is capable of being preserved in form of the long-term memory inside the human brain with taking consideration into the specific time period for which the information would be stored. However, it relies on a range of multiple aspects. Basically, the neuroscientists believe that a human brain is efficient enough of preserving an unlimited quality of information for a time period that might be more than decades. However, the first aspect that is responsible for influencing the duration and capacity of long-term memory would involve the way the memory is going to be encoded (Harriset al.2018, p.114). On the other hand, the memories that have been encoded optimally would end up lasting much longer comparing to the processed shallow memories. In addition to that one of the other aspects would be memory retrieval. However, the duration of time a particular memory would be accessed continue playing a critical role in adding value to the capacity as well as the duration of memory. This would possibly be the reason for a high level of retrieval capacity of the memory that would be practised and repeated again and again. Be that as it may, providing focus and attention to the information is responsible for making it stick to the memory for a long duration of time (Skodziket al.2017, p.224). It is investigated that the capacity held by the long-term memory would be thought to be got no limits. As proposed in some research studies, the upper bound on the size of both the acoustic as well as visual long-term memory has yet not been reached. On the other hand, it was defined by coursework help experts found challenging of encoding the information related to different incidents, however, under certain circumstances, an individual may succeed while he would focus and would be striving to encode the relative information (Namboodiriet al.2019, p.332).

The Physiological Aspects Associated With Long-Term Memory

In the previous days, it was trusted that the cortex of the human brain is only responsible for storing long-term information. However, with the advancement of technology and neurological science, it is clear that the long-term information gets to be preserved in various regions across the brain along with the other portions of the nervous system based on the type of the same. However, memories would not be localised, yet preserved via circuitry. Certain kinds of memories would be preserved all through the body since the chemical receptors in the brain would be everywhere in the body (Krishanet al.2019, p.67). Therefore, it is noticed that a method termed chemotaxis continues to communicate information to different body parts during the activated phase of the neurotransmitters in the brain. Then again, this communication would basically be conducted via cerebrospinal fluid and blood and hence certain memory might likewise be preserved in the muscles also. It is noticed that patients with organ transplants got reported emotional feelings and reactions to certain incidents that they had never before (Seoet al.2019, p.87).


At the end of this report, a conclusion could be drawn that memories would exist in various forms relying heavily on the distinct neural systems. In addition to that, depending on the duration of them, memories would be divided into long and short-term.It is analysed that consolidation, as well as reconsolidation, would involve stages during which the memory would be vulnerable to the interfaced as well as at the time of weakening or strengthening of the memory trace got to be accomplished. Additionally, long-term memories are responsible for preserving information for a long duration of time, sometimes for the lifetime of an individual. However, both long and short term memories would be categorized depending on the biological mechanisms associated with them whilst the former would be accompanied by both the functional as well as the structural changes associated with the neural networks that would need the expression of the de novo gene, the latter would depend on the present networks along with the posttranslational changes.


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