Gardner’s Theory Of Multiple Intelligences


Introduction  to the concept of Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligence

The term “multiple intelligences” provides a theoretical framework outlining the various methods by which students are able to pick up their practical knowledge. The use of different phrases, figures, music, and images, the value of societal interactions, contemplation, physical shifting along with staying in harmony with nature are all instances of multiple intelligences. Howard Gardner created the Multiple Intelligences theory. According to the idea, Nursing case study help, there are numerous distinct types of intelligence, each needing a distinctive set of skills and modes of thought. According to Gardner in the year of 1989, there are eight different types of intelligence including, Naturalistic, musical-rhythmic, visual-spatial, logical-mathematical, intrapersonal, interpersonal, Bodily-kinesthetic, verbal-linguistic, and kinaesthetic (SlideModel. 2022). 

Rather than concentrating on a single skill, Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences segregates human intelligence into eight different types that have been mentioned.  The bio psychological bandwidth for cognitive processing was what he defined as intelligence. According to this theory, every way human processes knowledge is unique and varies from the others and Master thesis writing services. Instead of limiting students to a single learning mode, Gardner claimed that his theory aimed to “embolden students.” Gardner has also recognized the significance of changing how educational curricula are developed in order to aid students in focusing on their true intentions instead of following a curriculum that is an inch longer and a mile away.

Discussion over the different types of intelligence considered under the Theory of Gardner


Gardner pertains to naturalistic intelligence as the ability to perform, pigeonhole, and manipulate components of the environment, objects, animal life, or plants (Iberdrola.2021). People can distinguish between different species, online Ghost writer, social groups, or objects, as well as comprehend how they relate to one another due to this type of intelligence. It is believed that naturalistic intelligence emerged during the times of the earliest humans, when recognizing helpful and unsafe species, perceiving the environment, reciting the land, and widening the variety of food resources available were all necessary for survival. Individuals with naturalistic intelligence typically exhibit an affinity for both the natural world and human creations when they are young. They are eager to understand more than just ground observations and want to conduct research to draw conclusions about the origin and workings of things. Likewise, they have the predisposition to arrange things into classifications and characterize them. 

The eagerness for animals and enchantment with plant growth are two ways people with this level of intelligence attempt to convey their love of the animal and plant kingdoms.They enjoy exploring and learning about the surroundings and other living things. Additionally, they frequently entertain themselves by paying attention to small details like ant trails, birds flapping, or insect interaction.

Musical intelligence

According to Gardner, people who have the highest level of musical intelligence have outstanding intellectual capabilities when it comes to instrumentals, sound, or relevant music trends (Pachina. 2023). An individual with a higher musical-rhythmic IQ can be a gifted composer, music director, songwriter, vocalist, etc.A person’s capacity for analyzing and comprehending music is alluded to as musical intelligence. People with this intelligence are capable of recognizing and comprehending different variants in sound, voice, rhythm, and various types of noises. Then, these people will utilize this relevant data and knowledge in their performances and classical compositions. The ability to learn songs rapidly is a trait of musical intelligence. Therefore, using music to teach grammar and vocabulary and offering students the opportunity to compose their own songs are effective ESL teaching methods. Chants are also advantageous as they are rhythmic and simple to memorize (Bokiev, et al., 2018). In order to support pronunciation and facilitate knowledge acquisition, rhymes, rhyming activities, and games should also be used. This intelligence implies proficiency in the creation, performance, and understanding of musical patterns. Beethoven and Ed Sheeran are two examples of musically intelligent people who can recognize and create a rhythmic pitch, syncopation, tonality, and timbre (Marenus. 2023)


The linguistic intelligence concept, which Howard Gardner included in his theory of multiple intelligences, is worried about responsivity between spoken and written language, the acquisition of new languages, and the ability to communicate in a variety of manners. and the ability in using language to reach concrete objectives (Gardner, 2013). People generally see people with a high level of verbal-linguistic intelligence at the time of looking at educators, writers, public speakers, newsreaders, and performers. People with this kind of intelligence are able to master the use of words, both in speech and in writing. People with linguistic intelligence, like Oprah Winfrey and William Shakespeare, are aware of this phenomenon and produce oral and written language products like statements, novels, and memorandums (Löffler. 2017). It has to do with a person’s capacity for language use. This requires the capacity to comprehend and generate both spoken and written communications. Pupils who are linguistically intelligent typically succeed in ESL classes since they pick up the language quickly and understand it fast. Reading or listening to notions is beneficial for people with high levels of linguistic intelligence. Reading authentic texts is enjoyable for linguistically talented children, and more advanced students will be inspired to read novels. Word games also encourage them (ie- crosswords and parts of speech-bingo). Open-ended activities, such as writing different text types (e.g., expository writing, tales, articles, journal entries), are a good activity for linguistically intelligent students with some English because they allow them to attract on their linguistic ability and are inspiring since they offer challenging task and creative thinking.


A trait of spatial intelligence is the potential to acknowledge and control patterns in both wide and small spaces, such as those that are substantial to artists, physicians, chess gamers, visual designers, or architects. Pilots and navigators, for instance, use patterns in vast spaces.. A person with spatial intelligence can acknowledge and manipulate both large-scale and fine-grained spatial images, as demonstrated by Frank Lloyd Wright and Amelia Earhart (Olmsted. 2018). It has to do with the extent to which a person can envision the outside world and use spatial judgment and rationalization. People who have strong spatial and visual intelligence can recall pictures, faces, and detailed information as well as visualize crucial points and images (Strauss, 2013). People with spatial intelligence gain knowledge faster when given visual representations than when given auditory information, and they will remember the correct way to spell the words by looking rather than phonetically. By using written examples and visual elements, teachers can improve what they say. As well as using props and pictures, written texts should be illustrated. Use should be made of activities that involve drawing. Comic strips, Pictionary, and creating posters are a few examples. The memorization of concepts and vocabulary will be made possible by the use of visual learners, such as Venn diagrams and sequential graphs. 


Logical-mathematical intelligence is exemplified by skills such as the capacity for logical reasoning, arithmetical computation, and scientific discovery. Examples of people with logical-mathematical intelligence encompass Albert Einstein and Bill Gates. who are adept at formulating equations and confirmations, processing data, and resolving complex problems (Page. 2022). Others have difficulty comprehending them even after spending a lot of time thinking about the way they work, while some people can overcome complicated mathematical problems in minutes or even within a fraction of a minute or second. Some individuals, including scientists, mathematicians, and accounting professionals, are good at using reasoning and mathematics. This is possible because they have a high level of logical-mathematical intelligence. It has to do with logic, reasoning, critical thinking, being able to comprehend abstract concepts, and unimportant relationships. People who are logical-mathematically intelligent enjoy classifying, categorizing, and spotting patterns (Marenus. 2023). Activities that are structured help people with logical-mathematical learning styles learn more effectively. They favor straightforward objectives and sequential, step-by-step activities. As a result, the ESL instructor should be clear about the goal, especially if it is a more open-ended activity with a less obvious goal. By giving a step-by-step demonstration, they can also direct students through the procedures of an open-ended activity. They frequently use grammatical structures to access language because they can quickly comprehend patterns. By giving students the chance to examine and self-discover grammatical patterns, teachers can help with this.


Intrapersonal intelligence is characterized by the capacity to comprehend oneself, to have a beneficial working model of oneself, such as one’s own desires, concerns, and aptitudes, and to use such information effectively in governing one’s own life. Individuals with intrapersonal intelligence, such as Aristotle who has been found o have the ability to recognize and fathom their own emotions, desires, motivations, and motivations. This type of intelligence can assist an individual to understand what life objectives are crucial and the way to achieve them.  It alludes to the capacity for self-reflection. High intrapersonal intelligence enables a person to comprehend their own feelings, motivating factors, and behavior patterns. They are goal-oriented, identify, enjoy expressing their learning and frequently favor working alone. Providing opportunities for students to choose their own learning paths and setting and reflecting on their English learning objectives are all methods for assisting intrapersonal learners (Cherry. 2023). Reflective journaling is a good exercise because intrapersonal students are introspective.


Extraversion is the capacity to recognize the motivations, expectations, and aspirations of others, which allows one to function efficiently with others. Like Mother Teresa and Mahatma Gandhi, others with intelligence are able to comprehend the opinions, priorities, and motivating factors of others. Individuals with a high personal and social IQ are productive in a number of professions, including mentoring, customer service, purchases, consulting, and more. This kind of intelligence enables its users to more accurately determine the emotional responses, preconceptions, aspirations, and intrinsic motivators of others, which results in improved presentation skills.  It is connected to the capacity for social interaction. Communication skills, a consciousness of other people’s emotional reactions, and a capacity for empathy and interpersonal connection are all necessary. Interactive teaching situations are preferred by people with interpersonal intelligence (Sener, and Çokçaliskan. 2018). Students in pairs and groups to support this group. Discussions, brainstorming, personal interview, and role-plays are instances of collaborative activities. Being able to teach the class a skill that is either linked to English or is more general is a perfect exercise for personal and social students, who appreciate instructing others. The ability to write about another person’s perspective or speak about it is a good activity for interpersonally accomplished people because they are good at commiserating.


Bodily-kinesthetic intelligence is the capacity to use one’s entire body or specific body parts (such as the arm or the mouth) in problem-solving or product development. (Nabukeera. 2018). It has to do with motor abilities and coordination. People who possess bodily-kinaesthetic intelligence are adept at controlling their own movements and handling objects. They physically interpret things through movement and sense of touch, and they are more focused when they are physically active. As a result, they may keep struggling with activities that require them to sit still for long periods of time. In order to encourage physical activity, a Teacher should give adequate activity involvement opportunities. These include charades and role-playing, scavenger hunts, tunes with moving, and physical games such as a ball throwing game, and cricket. Craft projects that utilize all of the arms and haptic impressions are also beneficial.

The implication of the theory in different areas of development 

Intelligence applied in education

According to Gardner, education should be provided in schools to assist students in achieving their vocational and vocational objectives in accordance with their range of intelligence (Mamakou, et al., 2017). Gardner stated in an interview that he is currently thinking about including the requirements to teach intelligence, or the capacity to satisfactorily teach others.

Intelligence applied in Business 

One of the biggest innovators in recent years has been a company that has effectively utilized the skills of its employees. According to Google’s 20% policy, workers are permitted to use 20% of their compensated time for personal projects (SlideModel. 2022). The best services accessible anywhere in the world, such as Gmail, Google AdSense, and News Sites, are the consequence of innumerable successful projects enabled by this.

Intelligence and leadership

The most prosperous businesspeople in the world did not end up in their illustrious positions by chance. It can be argued that Steve Jobs’ strong visual-spatial intelligence contributed to his ability to revolutionize the computer industry. In addition to believing in employee empowerment, Steve Jobs also thought it was pointless to hire intelligent people only to give them explicit guidelines (SlideModel. 2022).


In accordance with the theory of multiple intelligences, we can consider multiple types of mental strengths and abilities. Gardner himself asserts that when developing instruction, educators must use personalized goals and values appropriate to the teaching style, subject matter, and students’ necessitates rather than adhering to a single theory or educational innovation. By addressing multiple intelligences, instructors can broaden their instruction and assessment methods while also working to improve learning outcomes.


Bokiev, D., Bokiev, U., Aralas, D., Ismail, L. and Othman, M., (2018). Utilizing music and songs to promote student engagement in ESL classrooms. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, 8(12), pp.314-332.

Cherry, K. (2023) Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, Verywell Mind. Available at: (Accessed: February 21, 2023). 

Gardner, H. (2013). Frequently asked questions—Multiple intelligences and related educational topics. Retrieved from

Iberdrola (2021) Naturalistic intelligence, the ability to understand the environment, Iberdrola. Iberdrola. Available at:,%2C%20objects%2C%20animals%20or%20plants. (Accessed: February 21, 2023). 

Löffler, P., (2017). Reading the Canon: Literary History in the 21st Century. BoD–Books on Demand.

Mamakou, I., Halatsis, C. and Gregoriadou, M., (2017), June. Modernising Instructional Methodologies in Computer and Telecomminication Engineering Education. In 2017 27th EAEEIE Annual Conference (EAEEIE) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Marenus (2023) [Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences], Available at: (Accessed: February 21, 2023). 

Model, S. (2022) Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences (8 types of intelligences), SlideModel. Available at:,%2C%20interpersonal%2C%20intrapersonal%20and%20naturalistic. (Accessed: February 21, 2023). 

Nabukeera, M.S., (2018). The Role Of A Teacher In Developing And Implementing A Holistic Model In Youth Personality Development At Higher Education.

Olmsted, M.S., (2018). Societal Factors: Sex Roles and Stereotypes. In Women in Foreign Policy (pp. 26-52). Routledge.

Pachina, E. (2023) The overview of Howard Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences, ITTT – International TEFL and TESOL Training. ITTT Tefl. Available at: (Accessed: February 21, 2023). 

Page, L., (2022). Optimally Irrational: The Good Reasons We Behave the Way We Do. Cambridge University Press.

Sener, S. and Çokçaliskan, A., (2018). An investigation between multiple intelligences and learning styles. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6(2), pp.125-132.

Strauss, V. (2013, Oct. 16). Howard Gardner: “Multiple intelligences” are not “learning styles.” The Washington Post. Retrieved from Protection Status
Open chat
Need Help?
Hello! Welcome to Sourceessay.
How can I help you?