Asperger’s Syndrome: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Asperger’s Syndrome
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Introduction

Asperger’s syndrome is a disease that belongs to the group of neurodevelopment conditions, which is known as “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD). The healthcare professionals found that the disease Asperger’s syndrome is a milder form of Autism. Children with AS have a difficulty in making interacting with the people residing in their society. They tend to perform the same behavior repeatedly. Children with AS mostly shows stubborn kind of behavior, and they do not change their belief and opinions from other’s influences. They mostly focused on the routines and rules and maintain to do the practices regularly. People with Asperger’s syndrome do not have any issues in learning language skills or developing cognitive behavior therefore people can manage the activity associated with daily life. They can perform all the tasks like other people and also could be able to understand the learning as they are intelligent enough.

Therefore, in the following section, the history of Asperger’s syndrome will be discussed. Further, the reason behind the occurrence of this disease will be highlighted. In addition to this the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment method of the disease will also be identified and mentioned.

Discussion

Asperger’s Syndrome also known as Asperger’s disorder was first identified by the Viennese pediatrician Hans Asperger. Firstly, he observed that few children with normal intelligence levels and language development skills are facing “autism-like behaviors and difficulties” in making social communication. Some of the researchers described Asperger’s syndrome as the mildest form of autism (Mirkovic and Gérardin, 2019). Uta Frith, who was a professor at the “Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience of University College London” and at the same time editor of Autism and Asperger Syndrome describes this individual with the disease as “having a dash of autism.”

The disease Asperger’s disorder was added to the “American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV)” in the year 1994. In most of the cases, researchers and health professionals thought that Asperger’s Syndrome is a less severe form in comparison to Autism as children can develop the capacity of the brain with growing age and they have also a higher level of intelligence like other children. However, in the year 2013, all the pervasive developmental disorders like “Autistic Disorder, and Asperger’s Disorder” has been covered under the diagnosis of “autism spectrum disorder” (ASD) (Motlani et al. 2022). To know more about Asperger’s Syndrome students can take help from SourceEssay online assignment help experts .

Reason For The Occurrence Of Asperger’s Syndrome

Several numbers of professionals were studying in order to understand the reason behind the occurrence of Asperger’s Syndrome and the way it could be effectively treated. Among all one of the studies used “functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)” in order to describe the way abnormalities occur in particular areas of the human brain which cause changes in the functioning of the brain and result in the symptoms of AS and ASDs. In another study of a clinical trial, this has been identified that the changes in the brain are the major reason behind the occurrence of ASD. However, the professionals are not clear regarding the development of Asperger’s Syndrome and identified that there are a few factors that could contribute to the development of the disease. Along with the genetic factor the higher exposure to environmental toxins such as toxic gases, viruses, and chemicals. As per the view of Green et al. (2019) in comparison to girls, more number of boys have been identified with the symptom of this disease. According to the databases of the “National Institute of Health” it can be stated that most of the Autistic girls do not receive care and appropriate diagnoses.

Asperger’s Syndrome: Symptoms

  • Hyperfocus: In some cases, it has been found that people give more attention to a particular topic or a particular area of a subject. Sometimes they become obsessive regarding that particular factor and prefer to collect information on that (Oppitz et al. 20221).  For example, it can be cars or cartoon characters that the children paid more attention to. This could be difficult for the parents to divert their attention from those factors and to teach them new things.
  • Trouble in social interaction: People with Asperger’s Syndrome mainly face problems when communicating with other people. They feel difficulties in changing topics of discussion and continuing the same thing. They could not understand when to low their voice or when to make it high. Along with this they also failed to understand the behavioral approach of the people in social gatherings. Therefore they prefer to avoid social interactions.
  • Difficulty in understanding facial expressions and body language: Children with Asperger’s Syndrome face difficulty in making social interactions. people mostly describe their feelings through body language along with facial expressions (Qi, et al. 2020). Autistic people find it hard to understand people’s feelings and to recognize their expressions. As autistic people avoid looking at eyes of the others during making discussions and prefer to speak monotone. They only understand a few expressions and continue with that only.
  • Issues in making coordination: Some of the children with Asperger’s Syndrome find the motor skills like walking, running, singing, and dancing difficult. They lack concentration and an also lack coordination (Holloway, 2018). Therefore, they failed to make these skills happen smoothly. The child with Asperger’s Syndrome has intellectual disabilities. 

Different Ways Of Diagnosis Of Asperger’s Syndrome

There is not any particular method to identify the occurrence of Asperger’s syndrome in children. Understanding the cognitive behaviors of the children and finding difficulties in regular behaviors are the methods to determine the issue in the mental health condition of the children.

The major way to identify the issues in children is to observe the language skills of children in a growing age. If the children are having issues in understanding the language and putting words in appropriate places then it can be identified that there is some problem. The major problem in social interactions is faced by children with this syndrome. However, this is a common problem found among all children. Then it can be stated that identification of the facial expression while talking is also essential. Less interest in the child to interact with others and repeating their behavior continuously is also a symptom that can specify the presence of the syndrome in the child (Atbaşoğlu, 2020). Less interest to learn new skills and a lack of coordination are also a method to identify the presence of Asperger’s syndrome in the child. When all the symptoms occur at a time then it can be identified that a particular child is having some issues.

According to nursing essay help experts, medical professionals must have to diagnose the “developmental history and observation” of the child in the preliminary stages. Early detection of the syndrome is beneficial for the child to overcome all the issues and they could be able to receive more chances in becoming successful in different phases in their lives. 

Treatment Methods For Asperger’s Syndrome

Asperger’s Syndrome has not been considered as a disability or disorder that needs heavy medication or treatment. In Asperger’s Syndrome children do not require to take medications. Some of the people require support at school, and in the workplace for considering jobs on a daily basis. With the cooperation or the support of coworkers, they could easily solve their problems and with the guidance of the parents, they could also be able to make solutions to the issues.

Early diagnosis of the problem is beneficial for the child with Asperger’s Syndrome to receive the right kind of support that could be beneficial for them to understand the different types of behavior and the types of feelings required during communication (Brown, 2021). Children with the symptoms can be able to make interactions smoothly and also could be able to perform their day-to-day activities.

In the case of ASD, there is not any particular guideline that fits for managing the challenges of every child. Different people have different types of issues and depending upon their problems selection of the therapies must have to be done. Sometimes a combination of therapies and support is required for addressing the challenges and to provide solutions to them.

Further, this has been identified that people with Asperger’s Syndrome may have mental health issues like depression, and anxiety. They need to get treatment for solving mental health issues for the betterment of their mental condition. To know more students can take assistance from dissertation assignment help experts online.

Medication

There is no particular medication applied for the treatment of Asperger’s Syndrome. However, sometimes people take medications in order to manage symptoms of common conditions. In most cases, people take medication for maintaining mental health, depression, and anxiety. Antidepressants have commonly been used to manage depression. SSRIs have been identified as the first line of treatment in the case of depression (Born et al. 2019). In general, the common type of antidepressant also has been used in the treatment of anxiety. Therefore, it can be stated that the use of (SSRIs) can be done if the patient is suffering from “obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)”.

Further, the Anti-anxiety medications like benzodiazepines are useful in reducing social anxiety. Children who are undergoing social anxiety for making social communication can make use of this medication for reducing mental pressure and other anxiety disorders.

Some of the patients may suffer from irritation and agitation at some point in their daily life. Then the doctors prescribe “Anti-psychotic medications” for relaxing the patients in a critical situation. “Risperidone and aripiprazole” has been currently used by doctors as this has been approved by the “Food and Drug Administration (FDA)” (Barber, 2018).

Therapy

Along with medication several therapies also has been prescribed by doctors for developing, communication skills, cognitive behavior, emotion regulation, and lastly social interaction.

Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the most common type of psychotherapy that is beneficial for an individual to identify the change in behavior, unhelpful attitudes, and the negative mindset of others. This could be helpful for the people to understand with whom they have to interact and the person they need to avoid (Nesic-Vuckovic, 2018). This is also beneficial in managing personal issues in regular life during making interactions with others and also regulates anxiety and depression.

Further, this has been identified that the use of the Speech therapy is also beneficial in overcoming language and communication problems. Along with this, with the help of speech therapy an individual with Asperger’s Syndrome and voice problems and be corrected (Sharma et al. 2018). The person will be able to manage the voice during making communicating with others.

According to diploma of nursing experts , Social skills training programs is also a therapy that is beneficial in addressing issues that makes communication challenging for society. Under this training, people could be able to identify social cues and the use of the language in appropriate places (Chambers et al. 2020). In social communication, the type of language must have to be apple can be identified with the help of this training.

Further, this has been mentioned that the following “Physical therapy (PT) and occupational therapy (OT)” are the two methods that help in improving motor skills and coordination (Zavaleta-Ramírez et al. 2020). Children with Asperger’s Syndrome can identify and manage with sensory issues.

Lastly, it can be stated that along with all the therapy and medications parental guidance and support are always necessary for the child to overcome all the challenges that arise in the way to their daily life.

Other Therapies

Music and art therapy is one of the ways to discuss any factors easily with a child suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome. Social challenges in communication building can be overcome easily with the help of this method. Along with this message, therapy is also an alternative method that can be used to reduce the anxiety of an individual and sensory-related symptoms also can be minimized (Menezes et al. 2020). In research, this has been identified that acupuncture is also an effective method to improve social adaptation.

Conclusion

From the discussion, it can be concluded that Asperger’s Syndrome is the mildest form of Autism. Children suffering from Asperger’s Syndrome face problems in making social communication and in the identification of feelings of others. However, they have a higher level of intelligence. With the guidance and support of parents, they could easily overcome challenges and lead healthy life.

References

Atbaşoğlu, E.C., 2020. Autism Spectrum Disorder as an Initial Diagnosis in Adults. Archives of Neuropsychiatry, 57(1), p.1.

Barber, C.F., 2018. Asperger’s syndrome and mental health. British Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 7(2), pp.70-74.

Born, C.G., McClelland, A. and Furnham, A., 2019. Mental health literacy for autism spectrum disorder and depression. Psychiatry Research, 279, pp.272-277.

Brown, T.E., 2021. ADHD and Asperger syndrome in smart kids and adults: Twelve stories of struggle, support, and treatment. Routledge.

Chambers, B., Murray, C.M., Boden, Z.V. and Kelly, M.P., 2020. ‘Sometimes labels need to exist’: exploring how young adults with Asperger’s syndrome perceive its removal from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition. Disability & Society, 35(4), pp.589-608.

Green, R.M., Travers, A.M., Howe, Y. and McDougle, C.J., 2019. Women and autism spectrum disorder: Diagnosis and implications for treatment of adolescents and adults. Current psychiatry reports, 21(4), pp.1-8.

Holloway, R., 2018. Asperger’s children: Psychodynamics, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Routledge.

Menezes, M., Harkins, C., Robinson, M.F. and Mazurek, M.O., 2020. Treatment of depression in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 78, p.101639.

Mirkovic, B. and Gérardin, P., 2019. Asperger’s syndrome: What to consider?. L’encephale, 45(2), pp.169-174.

Motlani, V., Motlani, G. and Thool, A., 2022. Asperger Syndrome (AS): A Review Article. Cureus, 14(11).

Nesic-Vuckovic, T., 2018. Out of the nightmare: The treatment of a 5-year-old girl with Asperger’s syndrome. In The many faces of Asperger’s syndrome (pp. 168-182). Routledge.

Oppitz, L.R., Rodríguez, M.G., Schneider, N.Á., Salvação, S.M.L., da Paixão Custódio, C., Fregoneze, A.P., Andreis, P.K.D.S., Arantes, A.C.M., Schappo, C., Guariza Filho, O. and Tanaka, O.M., 2021. Aesthetic and functional advantages of early orthodontic treatment in a child with Asperger’s Syndrome: case report. Research, Society and Development, 10(15), pp.e187101522722-e187101522722.

Qi, S., Morris, R., Turner, J.A., Fu, Z., Jiang, R., Deramus, T.P., Zhi, D., Calhoun, V.D. and Sui, J., 2020. Common and unique multimodal covarying patterns in autism spectrum disorder subtypes. Molecular autism, 11(1), pp.1-15.

Sharma, S.R., Gonda, X. and Tarazi, F.I., 2018. Autism spectrum disorder: classification, diagnosis and therapy. Pharmacology & therapeutics, 190, pp.91-104.

Zavaleta-Ramírez, P., Rosetti, M.F., Albores-Gallo, L., Vargas-Soberanis, M.A., López, O.N. and Medina-Mora, M.E., 2020. Pathways to a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder. Psychiatric Services, 71(11), pp.1120-1126.

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