Plagiarism essentially means stealing somebody’s paper or work and is not a new occurrence in the research field. It is considered unfair for the author. An author spends an extensive period of time to study, research and write an assignment. They devote years to gather all relevant information, and it takes very little time for people to copy it and claim it as their original work. Even if the author is not a famous person, the accused has no right to copy someone else’s work. It is a criminal offence. It is very easy to open a site or book and copy any paper of distinguished authors. It has garnered bigger attention with the advent of technology that has made it easier to reveal cases of plagiarism. Even though no percentage of plagiarism is acceptable, it can vary from complete plagiarism, as the most shameful deceit, to accidental plagiarism. Though, not all types of plagiarism are alike, when investigating whether the research work is an act of plagiarism, the purpose of whether it was deliberate or accidental, is essential. Therefore, understanding plagiarism should be qualified as a basic ability at educational institutions. It contemplates the seriousness of both deliberate and accidental plagiarism. It is therefore important to understand different forms of plagiarism.
8 types of Plagiarism
Due to the seriousness and huge number of incidences of plagiarism, a survey of scientific researchers has created different classifications of plagiarism categories. Even though thorough plagiarism is considered the most severe and grave crime, paraphrasing is the one that is the most frequently used. It is, therefore, very imperative to study and comprehend all the different types of plagiarism and how they take place.
Complete plagiarism is the most serious method of plagiarism. Here a researcher simply takes an original manuscript or research work that someone else generated and submits it under his/her name. It is equivalent to intelligent stealing and theft.
Plagiarism may also happen because of a variety of sources. For instance, when a researcher mentions a source that is not accurate or does not even exist, it is considered as misrepresentation of citation. Plagiarism also occurs when a researcher uses a secondary source of data or material, but merely quotes the primary source of information. Both these types lead to a rise in the number of references sources. This, consecutively, surges the citation number of the references.
Finally, data creation and misrepresentation are also forms of plagiarism. Data creation is the manufacturing of data and research findings, while data misrepresentation implicates altering or completely ignoring data to display an incorrect image. The costs of this type of plagiarism can be high, mainly in the field of medical research, because it can harmfully disturb vital scientific results.
This is the type where the suspect directly duplicates a segment or portion of an article or a book. They avoid using quotation marks or quote the source in any paper. This is an unethical and corrupt deed. Exact or verbatim plagiarism happens when an author directly reproduces the work of another author, in the same words, without the use of quotation marks or ascription, thus presenting it as his/her own original work. It is similar to complete plagiarism, but it mentions to only sections rather than all of another author’s paper. This type of plagiarism is considered untruthful and demands for strict academic penalizing actions. It is generally not normally used, but still is viewed as a grave breach of academic rules and integrities.
Self or Auto Plagiarism
Auto-plagiarism is the type where a student submits his/her previous paper or copies from the previous paper and submits it to his/her professor. It is also identified as self-plagiarism or replication, takes place when an author reprocesses significant portions of his/her previously published work without ascription. This is ultimately plagiarizing your own research paper, and it also is a type of cheating. For examples, a University student submits the same paper that he/she had already submitted in high school. Accordingly, this type of plagiarism is predictable in case of published researchers, rather than university students. The seriousness of this style of violation is still under deliberation, it largely is subject to the copied material. However, many academic journals have firm standards and conditions on the percentage of author’s work that is reusable. Many journals clear manuscripts through special plagiarism-detection software before sanctioning them for appraisal.
This is considered as the most general type of plagiarism. It implicates the usage of someone else’s content with some negligible modifications in the sentences and presenting it as one’s original work. However, even if the words are different, the original idea remains the same and thus is regarded as plagiarism. Since students often do not have a thorough awareness of what represents as plagiarism, there are references for research and writing easily accessible to ease the possibility of paraphrasing plagiarism.
Inaccurate authorship or misleading ascription can transpire in the following two techniques:
The first form is when an individual backs a manuscript but does not get due acknowledgement for it. The second form is when an individual gets acknowledgement without any contribution to the work. Both this type of plagiarism is regarded as a violation of the principles in research.
It is also likely to commit this form of plagiarism when someone else edits and oversees a manuscript, leading to basic changes. In this case, the recommendation is to admit the original author.
This is commonly known as, ‘patch writing’. This is the type where a scholar uses phrases straight from a source without using a citation. A student may modify words or language, but the basic structure remains identical. Mosaic plagiarism can be more challenging to identify because someone else’s phrases or text is inserted within his/her own research.
Accidental plagiarism is when a student slips to cite, misquotes their source, or by mistake rephrases a source without giving due credit. This is only accidental, but nevertheless, it is still considered as a violation.